The basis of Internet history

The first documented description of social interactions enabled by networks was a series of memoirs by J.C.R. Licklider of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in August 1962 discussed the concept of a “galactic network”. He envisioned a globally interconnected computer system where everyone could quickly access data and software from anywhere. In spirit, the concept was very similar to today’s Internet. Licklider was the first head of DARPA’s computer research program, beginning in October 1962. While at DARPA he convinced his successors at DARPA, Evan Sutherland, Bob Taylor, and MIT researcher Lawrence J. Roberts, of the importance of this network concept.

Leonard Kleinrock of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology published the first paper on packet switching theory in July 1961 and the first book on the subject in 1964. Kleinrock convinced Roberts of the theoretical feasibility of communication using packets instead of circuits, which was an important step down the road. The way to computer networks. Another important step was to make the computers talk together. To investigate this, in 1965, working with Thomas Merrill, Roberts assembled a TX-2 computer in Massa. to Q-32 in California with a speed-dial telephone line, creating the first ever large-scale (albeit small) computer network. building The result of this experiment was the realization that time-sharing computers could work well together, running programs and retrieving data as needed on the remote device, but the circuit-switched telephone system was not well suited to the job. Kleinrock’s conviction of the need to change portions was confirmed.

In late 1966, Roberts went to DARPA to develop the idea of ​​a computer network, and quickly laid out his plan for ARPANET, publishing it in 1967. At the conference where he presented the paper, there was also a paper on the idea of ​​a packet network from the United Kingdom by Donald Davies and Roger Scantlebury of NPL. Scantlebury told Roberts about the work of the NPL as well as the work of Paul Baran and others at RAND. The RAND group wrote a research paper on packet-switching networks for secure voice in the military in 1964. It so happened that she worked at MIT (1967-1961), the RAND Corporation (1962-1965), and NPL (1964-1967) all of this was done simultaneously without ever One of the other job seekers knew. The word “packet” was adopted from the work at NPL and the proposed line speed for use in the ARPANET design was upgraded from 2.4 kbps to 50 kbps

In August 1968, after Roberts and the DARPA-funded community revised the overall structure and specifications of the ARPANET, a RFP was issued by DARPA to develop one of the key components, packet switches called Interface Message Processors (IMP’s). A RFP was won in December 1968 by a group led by Frank Hart at Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN). While the BBN team worked on the IMP with Bob Kahn who played a major role in the overall architectural design of the ARPANET, the network topology and economics were designed and optimized by Roberts working with Howard Frank and his team at the Network Analysis Corporation, and the network measurement system was prepared by the Kleinrock team at UCLA. Los Angeles.

Due to Kleinrock’s early development of packet switching theory and his focus on analysis, design, and measurement, his Center for Network Measurement at UCLA was selected as the first node on the ARPANET. It all came together in September 1969 when the BBN installed the first IMP at UCLA and the first host computer was connected. Doug Engelbert’s project on “enhancing human thought” (which involved NLS, an early hypertext system) at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) provided a second node. SRI supported the Network Information Center, headed by Elizabeth (Jake) Weinler and included functions such as maintaining host name address mapping tables as well as the RFC library.

A month later, when the SRI was connected to the ARPANET, the first host-to-host message was sent from Kleinrock Labs to the SRI. Two more nodes were added at the University of California, Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. These last two nodes have integrated application visualization projects, Glenn Koehler and Burton Freed at UCLA are investigating mathematical function representations using storage screens to deal with the network update problem, and Robert Taylor and Evan Sutherland at Utah are investigating 3D representations on the Internet. Thus, by the end of 1969, four host computers were connected together into the initial ARPANET, and the nascent Internet ceased to function. Already at this early stage, it is worth noting that network research included both work on the basic network and how to take advantage of the network. This tradition continues to this day.

Computers were added rapidly to the ARPANET over the following years, and work continued to complete a fully functional Host-to-Host protocol and other networking software. In December 1970, the Network Working Group (NWG) under S. Crocker finalized the initial ARPANET host-to-host protocol, called the Network Control Protocol (NCP). When ARPANET sites completed NCP implementation during 1971-1972, network users could finally begin developing applications.

In October 1972, Kahn organized a large and very successful ARPANET presentation at the International Computer Communications Conference (ICCC). This was the first public demonstration of this new network technology to the public. And in 1972, the first “hot” application, e-mail, was introduced. In March, Ray Tomlinson of BBN wrote the main software for sending and reading e-mail, driven by the ARPANET developers’ need for an easy design mechanism. In July, Roberts expanded its usefulness by writing the first email utility to add, selectively read, save, forward, and reply to messages. From there, email spread as the largest Web application in more than a decade. It was a precursor to the kind of activity we see today on the World Wide Web. , meaning the exponential growth of all kinds of “interpersonal” traffic.

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