History of Bahasa[Indonesian]

In English we call the language “Indonesian”: it is wrong to call it simply “Bahasa”.
Indonesian is not even remotely related to English. Nor does it concern the mainland languages ​​of New Guinea, the indigenous languages ​​of Australia, or the Sino-Tibetan languages ​​of China and Southeast Asia. The Indonesian language belongs to the Austronesian language family that spans the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean. Other languages ​​in this family include Malagasy (spoken in Madagascar off the coast of Africa), Javanese languages ​​(famous for their elaborate system of speech levels), Pali (the beautiful Balinese Hindi language), and Tagalog or Filipino (English). the national language of the Philippines), and Maori (the language of the Polynesian people born in New Zealand). Several Indonesian words have been borrowed into English, including the common words gong, orangutang, and serong, and the less common words padi, sago, and kapok. The phrase “to go on a rampage” comes from the Indonesian verb amuk (to go out of control and kill people indiscriminately).

Unlike Chinese, Indonesian is not a tonal language. In terms of pronunciation, the Indonesian language, although not easy, is relatively simple for English speakers. It is sometimes described as “agglutinative”, meaning it has a complex variety of prefixes and suffixes associated with completely basic words, for example, the English word “uncomfortable” is built from the keyword “comfort”. The main vocabulary of the Indonesian language is Austronesian, but the language has also borrowed countless common words from Sanskrit, Arabic, Dutch, English and local languages, especially Javanese and Jakarta-Malay.

Indonesian history
From the earliest recorded times, Malay was, and still is, the original language of the people living on both sides of the Strait of Malacca that separates Sumatra from the Malay Peninsula. Since the strait has always been a busy sea route, countless travelers and merchants came into contact with its shores. Over the centuries they carried Malay throughout the islands of Indonesia and the language became a widely used French language, especially in the coastal areas. This is one of the main reasons for this, at the age of twenty. In the last century Malay was chosen as the national language of the Republic of Indonesia and why it played an important role in consolidating the unity of Indonesia.

When Islam arrived in the Indonesian region, it spread along the trade routes and through the coastal trading towns where the Malay language was used. The Malays became associated with Islam and played a decisive role in the emergence of Islam as the majority religion in the archipelago. Malay was also the most common language for the spread of Christianity, especially in the now Christian areas of eastern Indonesia. In other words, Islam and Christianity helped spread the Malay language, and Malay helped spread Islam and Christianity. Established religion occupies an important place in the Republic of Indonesia – there is even a strong religious government in the central government. The Indonesian language today is identified with the “modern” religions of Islam and Christianity, and shares its social status and spiritual power.

From the 17th century onwards, when the islands of Indonesia slowly fell under Dutch control, European rulers used Malay as the most important means of communication between the government and the people. Unlike many other colonies, in Indonesia, the language of European rulers was not imposed on the local population. Only a small elite of native Indonesians learned Dutch, and therefore Malay, although still a minority language in India, was essential to the smooth running of the colony. When the Japanese invaded the Dutch East Indies in 1942, one of their first steps was to ban the use of the Dutch language. Since very few Indonesians knew Japanese, the Malay language (now called Indonesian) had to be used in administration more widely and intensively than under the Dutch. With such a record of use in modern government, Indonesian easily and naturally assumed the mantle of official language and the language of government under the Republic. Today, all government business: legislation, administration, justice, defense, education, national development, etc. are conducted entirely in the Indonesian language.

Indonesian jobs today
Indonesians are mostly bilingual, and many people are even fluent in three out of four languages. As children, most people learn at least one of the country’s many local languages, and later learn Indonesian at school, on city streets, or from television and radio. It is unclear how many people learn Indonesian as their first language as children, but at the dawn of the twenty-first. The century cannot be less than 20% of the country’s population, and this percentage is steadily increasing. The Indonesian language tends to be used more in the modern environment of central urban areas. Local languages ​​tend to dominate in rural areas and small towns, and are often used in homes, fields and markets.

Indonesia hosts an impressive variety of traditional verbal arts (poetry, historical novels, novels, dramas, etc.) expressed in local languages, but the modern genres are mainly expressed through the Indonesian language. Modern literature (novels, short stories, plays, free poetry, etc.) has developed since the late nineteenth century. century and produced internationally recognized figures such as the writer Pramodya Ananta, and the playwright W.S. Randra, the poet Kersil Anwar and the photographer Garen Nogroho. Indonesian is also the language of innovative and fascinating folk arts in the country: TV melodramas and comedies, pop novels, folk songs, animation and comedy.

language and standard versions
Like all Indonesian languages, it exhibits dialectal differences. The main dialect is divided between the northern dialect (today called Malay or Malay) used in Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei, and the southern dialect used in Indonesia. The southern version, in turn, can be divided into two broad dialect areas, western and eastern, each with slightly different stress and intonation patterns and certain differences in vocabulary. The Western language is spoken throughout Sumatra, Kalimantan, Java, Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa and most of Sulawesi. The eastern version, often crudely and colloquially called Ambonese Malay, is spoken in North Sulawesi, the Maluku Islands and Flores, Timor and West Papua. Both in the area of ​​the western dialect and in the eastern region there are local dialects that were created under the influence of the local languages. Among the smaller, easily recognizable dialects are those of the Batak people of North Sumatra, the Minangkabau people of West Sumatra, the Jakarta people, Javanese, Balinese, and many others.

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